1. Client-Lawyer Relationship
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ER 1.15. Safekeeping Property

(a) A lawyer shall hold property of clients or third persons that is in a lawyer's possession in connection with a representation separate from the lawyer's own property. Funds shall be kept in a separate account maintained in the state where the lawyer's office is situated, or elsewhere with the consent of the client or third person. Other property shall be identified as such and appropriately safeguarded. Complete records of such account funds and other property shall be kept by the lawyer and shall be preserved for a period of five years after termination of the representation.

(b) A lawyer may deposit the lawyer's own funds in a client trust account only for the following purposes and only in an amount reasonably estimated to be necessary to fulfill the stated purposes:

(1) to pay service or other charges or fees imposed by the financial institution that are related to operation of the trust account; or
(2) to pay any merchant fees or credit card transaction fees or to offset debits for credit card chargebacks.
(3) Earned fees and funds for reimbursement of costs or expenses may be deposited into a trust account if they are part of a single credit card transaction that also includes the payment of advance fees, costs or expenses and the lawyer does not use a credit card processing service that permits the lawyer to direct such funds to the lawyer's separate business account. Any such earned fees and funds for reimbursement of costs or expenses must be withdrawn from the trust account within a reasonable time after deposit.

(c) A lawyer shall deposit into a client trust account legal fees and expenses that have been paid in advance, to be withdrawn by the lawyer only as fees are earned or expenses incurred.

(d) Upon receiving funds or other property in which a client or third person has an interest, a lawyer shall promptly notify the client or third person. Except as stated in this Rule or otherwise permitted by law or by agreement between the client and the third person, a lawyer shall promptly deliver to the client or third person any funds or other property that the client or third person is entitled to receive and, upon request by the client or third person, shall promptly render a full accounting regarding such property.

(e) When in the course of representation a lawyer possesses property in which two or more persons (one of whom may be the lawyer) claim interests, the property shall be kept separate by the lawyer. The lawyer shall promptly distribute any portions of the property as to which there are no competing claims. Any other property shall be kept separate until one of the following occurs:

(1) the parties reach an agreement on the distribution of the property;
(2) a court order resolves the competing claims; or
(3) distribution is allowed under section (f) below.

(f) Where the competing claims are between a client and a third party, the lawyer may provide written notice to the third party of the lawyer's intent to distribute the property to the client, as follows:

(1) The notice shall be served on the third party in the manner provided under Rules 4.1 or 4.2 of the Arizona Rules of Civil Procedure, and must inform the third party that the lawyer may distribute the property to the client unless the third party initiates legal action and provides the lawyer with written notice of such action within 90 calendar days of the date of service of the lawyer's notice.

(2) If the lawyer does not receive such written notice from the third party within the 90-day period, and provided that the disbursement is not prohibited by law or court order, the lawyer may distribute the funds to the client after consulting with the client regarding the advantages and disadvantages of disbursement of the disputed funds and obtaining the client's informed consent to the distribution, confirmed in writing.

(3) If the lawyer is notified in writing of an action filed within the 90-day period, the lawyer shall continue to hold the property separate unless and until the parties reach an agreement on distribution of the property, or a court resolves the matter.

(4) Nothing in this rule is intended to alter a third party's substantive rights.


[1] A lawyer should hold property of others with the care required of a professional fiduciary. Securities should be kept in a safe deposit box, except when some other form of safekeeping is warranted by special circumstances. All property which is the property of clients or third persons, including prospective clients, must be kept separate from the lawyer's business and personal property and, if monies, in one or more trust accounts. Separate trust accounts may be warranted when administering estate monies or acting in similar fiduciary capacities. A lawyer should maintain on a current basis books and records in accordance with generally accepted accounting practice and comply with any recordkeeping rules established by law or court order. See Supreme Court Rules 43(i) and 44.

[2] While normally it is impermissible to commingle the lawyer's own funds with client funds, paragraph (b) provides that it is permissible when necessary to pay bank service charges on that account. Accurate records must be kept regarding which part of the funds are the lawyer's.

[3] Lawyers often receive funds from which the lawyer's fee will be paid. The lawyer is not required to remit to the client funds that the lawyer reasonably believes represent fees owed. However, a lawyer may not hold funds to coerce a client into accepting the lawyer's contention. The disputed portion of the funds must be kept in a trust account and the lawyer should suggest means for prompt resolution of the dispute, such as arbitration. The undisputed portion of the funds shall be promptly distributed.

[4] [Effective December 1, 2004] The Rule also recognizes that third parties may have just claims against specific funds or other property in a lawyer's custody, such as a client's creditor who has a lien on funds recovered in a personal injury action. A lawyer may have a duty under applicable law to protect such third-party claims against wrongful interference by the client. In such cases, when the third-party claim has become a matured legal or equitable claim, and unless distribution is otherwise allowed under this rule, the lawyer must refuse to surrender the property to the client until the claims are resolved. In addition to the procedures described in this rule, when there are substantial grounds for dispute as to the person entitled to the funds, the lawyer may file an action to have a court resolve the dispute. [As amended effective January 1, 2014]

[5] The obligations of a lawyer under this Rule are independent of those arising from activity other than rendering legal services. For example, a lawyer who serves only as an escrow agent is governed by the applicable law relating to fiduciaries even though the lawyer does not render legal services in the transaction and is not governed by this Rule.

[6] A lawyer's fund for client protection provides a means through the collective efforts of the bar to reimburse persons who have lost money or property as a result of dishonest conduct of a lawyer. Where such a fund has been established, a lawyer must participate where it is mandatory, and, even when it is voluntary, the lawyer should participate. Every lawyer has a professional obligation to participate in the collective efforts of the bar to reimburse clients and escrow beneficiaries who have lost money or property as the result of dishonest conduct in the practice of law. A lawyer's financial contribution to a lawyers' fund for client protection is an acceptable method of fulfilling this obligation.

[7] For further obligations regarding client property and trust accounts, see Supreme Court Rule 43 (“Trust Account Verification”) and Rule 44 (“Trust Accounts; Interest Thereon”).


[1] The 2009 amendments to E.R. 1.15 correspond with the 2009 amendments to Supreme Court Rule 43 on Trust Accounts. Supreme Court Rule 43 and the 2009 comments thereto contain additional requirements and procedures governing credit card transactions.

[2] For purposes of this rule, “merchant fees” and “credit card transaction fees” are fees that are deducted from the amount of the credit card charge to pay the company that issued the client's credit card, the lawyer or law firm's credit card processing service, and the credit card association (e.g., Visa, MasterCard), and related charges. Those fees typically include a percentage of the total amount billed plus a fixed fee, which, unless paid by the lawyer or law firm, reduces the amount that can be credited to the client's account. A “chargeback” (or reversal of charges) occurs when a client or former client writes to the credit card company that issued the credit card used to pay a lawyer to dispute the amount that should be paid to the lawyer or law firm. When a client or former client does so, the lawyer's or law firm's account is debited an amount equal to the disputed amount, plus a chargeback fee.

[3] Lawyers and law firms are permitted, and in some cases may be required, to place their own funds into their trust accounts in very limited circumstances. Lawyers and law firms that accept payment by credit card for advance fees, costs or expenses must at all times maintain in their trust accounts sufficient funds of their own to pay fees and charges related to operation of the trust account, and to pay all merchant and credit card transaction fees, chargeback fees and related charges. Lawyers and law firms must make a reasonable determination of the amount of their own funds that may appropriately be kept in their trust accounts to pay trust account and credit card fees and charges. Lawyers and law firms that use credit card processing services that debit all chargebacks and credit card fees and charges from an operating or business account are not required to maintain their own funds in their trust accounts to cover those charges, since no client or third-party funds will be at risk due to debits from the trust account. Lawyers should consult Rule 43 on the circumstances when lawyer funds are required to be maintained in a trust account to avoid misappropriation or conversion of client or third-party funds.


[1] New paragraph (f) allows a lawyer to distribute funds or property in the lawyer's possession after providing notice to third persons known to claim an interest. Notice under paragraph (f) must be sufficient to allow the third person to take appropriate action to protect its interests. Although there is no one form of notice that will be acceptable, the notice should generally include at least the following: (a) a description of the funds or property in the lawyer's possession; (b) the name of the client claiming an interest in the funds and other information reasonably available to the lawyer that would allow the third person to identify the claim or interest; (c) a mailing address, telephone number, and email address where the third party can provide notice to the lawyer of the commencement of an action asserting an interest in the funds or property; and (d) the proposed distribution of the funds or property. The notice shall be served in the manner provided under Rules 4.1 or 4.2 of the Arizona Rules of Civil Procedure.

[2] Apart from their ethical obligations, lawyers may have legal obligations to safeguard third-party funds under applicable case and statutory law. The notice provisions of paragraph (f) do not alter a lawyer's legal obligations and duties to third persons with respect to funds or property in the lawyer's possession. A lawyer who proposes to distribute funds under this paragraph should carefully evaluate the underlying law governing the lawyer's obligations to safeguard funds in which third persons claim an interest, which may expose the lawyer to a risk of civil or other liability even if the notice provisions of paragraph (f) are satisfied.

[3] Before making any distribution of funds or property pursuant to paragraph (f), a lawyer should explain to the client that the client may remain responsible to satisfy valid claims of third persons, and that the third person's failure to commence an action within the 90-day period of paragraph (f) will not by itself operate to waive, reduce or extinguish the third person's claim, if any, against the client or the funds or property received by the client. Before making any distribution under paragraph (f), the lawyer must obtain the client's informed consent, confirmed in writing, to the distribution.